Celebrate The Platinum Jubilee of The Queen Elizabeth II

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Introduction

Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, officially Elizabeth II, was born in London, England on April 21, 1926. She became the queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on February 6, 1952. In 2015, she surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning monarch in British history. 

April 21, 1926

Elizabeth II was born on April 21, 1926 in London, England

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November 14, 1948

Princess Elizabeth's first child (Prince Charles) was born 

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June 2, 1953

The coronation took place

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1977

The Queen Elizabeth II hosted the London banquet

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2015

The Queen Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch in British history

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November 20, 1947

Princess Elizabeth married Philip

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February 6, 1952

Princess Elizabeth became the Queen of the United Kingdom

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November 1953

Commonwealth Tour

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2002

Queen's 50 years on the throne

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Early Life

Elizabeth was the elder daughter of Prince Albert who is the duke of York, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. As the daughter of King George V's younger son, Elizabeth had little chance of inheriting the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor), abdicated in her father's favour on December 11, 1936, when her father became King George VI and she became heir presumptive. Her mother oversaw her education, entrusting her girls to Marion Crawford, a governess, to teach Elizabeth constitutional history and law as preparation for her future role; the princess was also taught history by C.H.K. Marten, later provost of Eton College, and had music and language lessons (French) from visiting lecturers. It is a skill which has stood the Queen in good stead, as she often has cause to use it when speaking to ambassadors and heads of state from French-speaking countries, and when visiting French-speaking areas of Canada. During World War II, she and her sister, Princess Margaret Rose, were forced to spend much of their time away from London and away from their parents, notably at Balmoral Castle in Scotland and the Royal Lodge, Windsor, and Windsor Castle.

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Marriage

Princess Elizabeth travelled to South Africa with the king and queen in early 1947. Her betrothal to her distant cousin Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten of the Royal Navy, previously Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, was announced shortly after her homecoming. On November 20, 1947, the couple married in Westminster Abbey. On the eve of the wedding, her father, the king, bestowed the titles of duke of Edinburgh, earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich upon the bridegroom. In London, they moved into Clarence House. Their first child, Prince Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George), was born at Buckingham Palace on November 14, 1948.

Inheritance of the throne

King George VI's health began to deteriorate, and Princess Elizabeth stood in for him at the Trooping of the Colour and other official ceremonies in the summer of 1951. She and her husband embarked on a tremendously successful tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. on October 7. She and the duke set out for Australia and New Zealand in January 1952 after Christmas in England, but word of the king's death on February 6, 1952 reached them on route, at Sagana, Kenya. Therefore, Elizabeth flew back to England right away. The first three months of her reign were spent in relative isolation, since she was in great mourning for her father. However, after moving from Clarence House to Buckingham Palace in the summer, Elizabeth resumed her royal duties and performed her first state opening of Parliament on November 4, 1952. On June 2, 1953, she was crowned at Westminster Abbey. 

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Prince Charles became heir apparent upon Queen Elizabeth's ascension; he was titled prince of Wales on July 26, 1958, and invested on July 1, 1969. Princess Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), born August 15, 1950, and made princess royal in 1987; Prince Andrew (Andrew Albert Christian Edward), born February 19, 1960, and made duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964, and made earl of Wessex and Viscount Severn in 1999, were the queen's other children. Although all of these children bear the surname "of Windsor," Elizabeth decided in 1960 to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for additional offspring who were not styled prince or princess and royal highness. On November 15, 1977, Elizabeth's first grandchild (Princess Anne's son) was born.

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The queen and the Duke of Edinburgh embarked on a six-month Commonwealth tour in November 1953, which included the first visit to Australia and New Zealand by a reigning British monarch. She and the Duke visited Canada and the United States in 1957, following state visits to other European countries. She was the first reigning British monarch to visit South America (in 1968) and the Persian Gulf countries, and she undertook the first royal British tour of the Indian subcontinent in 50 years in 1961. (in 1979). During her "Silver Jubilee" in 1977, she presided over a London banquet attended by the leaders of the Commonwealth's 36 countries, journeyed throughout the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland, and toured the South Pacific, Australia, Canada, and the Caribbean.

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Elizabeth reached 50 years on the throne in 2002. Events commemorating her "Golden Jubilee" were conducted across the Commonwealth, including three days of celebrations in London. Early in the year, Elizabeth's mother and sister died, putting a damper on the festivities. Beginning in the second decade of the twenty-first century, the royal family's public image improved, and even Charles' 2005 marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles was well received by the British public. In April 2011, Elizabeth led the family in toasting Prince William of Wales, Charles and Diana's oldest son, and Catherine Middleton. Elizabeth reached 50 years on the throne in 2002. Events commemorating her "Golden Jubilee" were conducted across the Commonwealth, including three days of celebrations in London. Early in the year, Elizabeth's mother and sister died, putting a damper on the festivities. Beginning in the second decade of the twenty-first century, the royal family's public image improved, and even Charles' 2005 marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles was well received by the British public. In April 2011, Elizabeth led the family in toasting Prince William of Wales, Charles and Diana's oldest son, and Catherine Middleton. She surpassed George III to become the second-longest-reigning monarch in British history, behind Victoria, the following month. In May, Elizabeth made history by becoming the first British monarch to visit the Irish republic and the first British monarch to step foot in Ireland since 1911. Elizabeth's "Diamond Jubilee," celebrating 60 years on the throne, was celebrated in 2012. She broke Victoria's record of 63 years and 216 days on September 9, 2015.

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Apart from the customary and ceremonial obligations, Elizabeth is known to prefer simplicity in court life and to take a serious and informed interest in government activity. 

Monarchy under the head of the Queen

The queen seemed to be becoming more cognizant of the monarchy's modern role, authorising the televising of the royal family's private life in 1970 and condoning the legal breakup of her sister's marriage in 1978. However, the royal family suffered a variety of difficulties in the 1990s. Prince Charles and Diana, princess of Wales, as well as Prince Andrew and Sarah, duchess of York, divorced in 1992, which Elizabeth referred to as the royal family's annus horribilis. Anne also divorced, and the royal residence of Windsor Castle was destroyed by fire. In addition, as the UK struggled with a recession, anger of the royals' lifestyle grew, and in 1992, Elizabeth agreed to pay taxes on her private income, although being personally exempt. The separation and subsequent divorce of Charles and Diana (1996) further damaged public support for the royal family, which was seen as outdated and unfeeling by some. Following Diana's death in 1997, the outrage grew, especially after Elizabeth refused to allow the national flag to fly at half-staff above Buckingham Palace. Following in the footsteps of her prior attempts to modernise the monarchy, the queen wanted to portray the monarchy as less stuffy and conventional. These efforts were received with varying degrees of success.

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The queen seemed to be becoming more cognizant of the monarchy's modern role, authorising the televising of the royal family's private life in 1970 and condoning the legal breakup of her sister's marriage in 1978. However, the royal family suffered a variety of difficulties in the 1990s. Prince Charles and Diana, princess of Wales, as well as Prince Andrew and Sarah, duchess of York, divorced in 1992, which Elizabeth referred to as the royal family's annus horribilis. Anne also divorced, and the royal residence of Windsor Castle was destroyed by fire. In addition, as the UK struggled with a recession, anger of the royals' lifestyle grew, and in 1992, Elizabeth agreed to pay taxes on her private income, although being personally exempt. The separation and subsequent divorce of Charles and Diana (1996) further damaged public support for the royal family, which was seen as outdated and unfeeling by some. Following Diana's death in 1997, the outrage grew, especially after Elizabeth refused to allow the national flag to fly at half-staff above Buckingham Palace. Following in the footsteps of her prior attempts to modernise the monarchy, the queen wanted to portray the monarchy as less stuffy and conventional. These efforts were received with varying degrees of success.

Personal Interest

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The Queen takes a keen and highly knowledgeable interest in horses, keeping racehorses, attending races on a regular basis, and visiting Kentucky stud farms. She shows up for the Derby at Epsom every year — one of the classic flat races in Britain, and the Summer Race Meeting at Ascot, which has been a Royal occasion since 1911.

She has many hobbies, including horse riding, pigeon racing, and football – she’s an Arsenal supporter! While spending leisure time with her pet dogs would be the Queen’s bias, as she lives with a number of them in different varieties, and her corgis are almost as famous as the monarch herself.